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Additionally, the enactment of the grandfather clause avoided national scrutiny because the national media was preoccupied with the coinciding outbreak of the Spanish-American War.
North Carolina was next to establish the grandfather clause in 1900.
At least in part, the absence of black voters ensured black schools would languish and discriminatory policy would pervade Southern society.
The United States Supreme Court deemed grandfather clauses unconstitutional in Guinn v. The Court stated that Oklahoma’s grandfather clause was “repugnant to the prohibitions of the Fifteenth Amendment” and that Oklahoma must remove its clause.
Pregnancy discrimination involves treating a woman (an applicant or employee) unfavorably because of pregnancy, childbirth, or a medical condition related to pregnancy or childbirth.
The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) forbids discrimination based on pregnancy when it comes to any aspect of employment, including hiring, firing, pay, job assignments, promotions, layoff, training, fringe benefits, such as leave and health insurance, and any other term or condition of employment.
Although the North Carolina clause eventually passed, it had to surmount serious opposition from blacks and Republicans wary of aggravating the federal government.
Eventually, Alabama, Georgia, Maryland, Oklahoma, and Virginia also put similar statutes into law.
An employer may have to provide a reasonable accommodation (such as leave or modifications that enable an employee to perform her job) for a disability related to pregnancy, absent undue hardship (significant difficulty or expense). It is unlawful to harass a woman because of pregnancy, childbirth, or a medical condition related to pregnancy or childbirth.In tandem with other methods of black disfranchisement, the Grandfather Clause permitted the continuance and strengthening of the Jim Crow segregation that suppressed black Americans in the South until the 1960s.Blacks constituted a majority in Louisiana and other southern states.Under the PDA, an employer that allows temporarily disabled employees to take disability leave or leave without pay, must allow an employee who is temporarily disabled due to pregnancy to do the same.